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View Full Version : Ok Guys, identify this Phaeton



arkiejazz
11-08-2006, 10:21 PM
Here's a beautiful Studebaker Phaeton in Norway. I think it's a '31, but I'm not sure. Somebody tell us all they know about this model please.
http://i93.photobucket.com/albums/l68/arkiejazz/Miscellaneous%20Studebaker%20Stuff/StudePheaton.jpg

steve blake
http://tinyurl.com/kr3gt
http://tinyurl.com/l7oqh

studeclunker
11-09-2006, 02:34 AM
You know, Turning Wheels did a story on these cars early this year. I remember some of the details, like the dual horns and the running lights on the fenders. For the life of me, that's all I remember.

Sure is a beautiful car. Looks like it even has a windscreen for the back seat.



http://i16.photobucket.com/albums/b18/Studeclunker/studebaby/54wagonblue-2.jpghttp://i16.photobucket.com/albums/b18/Studeclunker/studebaby/red54wagon-1.jpg http://i16.photobucket.com/albums/b18/Studeclunker/studebaby/62lark-1.jpg
Lotsa Larks!
K.I.S.S. Keep It Simple Studebaker!
Ron Smith

studeclunker
11-09-2006, 02:34 AM
You know, Turning Wheels did a story on these cars early this year. I remember some of the details, like the dual horns and the running lights on the fenders. For the life of me, that's all I remember.

Sure is a beautiful car. Looks like it even has a windscreen for the back seat.



http://i16.photobucket.com/albums/b18/Studeclunker/studebaby/54wagonblue-2.jpghttp://i16.photobucket.com/albums/b18/Studeclunker/studebaby/red54wagon-1.jpg http://i16.photobucket.com/albums/b18/Studeclunker/studebaby/62lark-1.jpg
Lotsa Larks!
K.I.S.S. Keep It Simple Studebaker!
Ron Smith

lstude
11-09-2006, 05:28 AM
If Richard Quinn (Studebaker Wheel) is on the forum, he can tell you everything you want to know about it.

Leonard Shepherd, editor, The Commanding Leader, Central Virginia Chapter, http://centralvirginiachapter.org/
http://i99.photobucket.com/albums/l288/lstude/Mein64Daytonasm.jpghttp://i99.photobucket.com/albums/l288/lstude/52inyardsm-1.jpg

lstude
11-09-2006, 05:28 AM
If Richard Quinn (Studebaker Wheel) is on the forum, he can tell you everything you want to know about it.

Leonard Shepherd, editor, The Commanding Leader, Central Virginia Chapter, http://centralvirginiachapter.org/
http://i99.photobucket.com/albums/l288/lstude/Mein64Daytonasm.jpghttp://i99.photobucket.com/albums/l288/lstude/52inyardsm-1.jpg

studehunter
11-09-2006, 07:43 AM
I know where one of these cars are. I will see if I can snap a photo of it and post it. It is not in this good of condition but its not bad.

studehunter
11-09-2006, 07:43 AM
I know where one of these cars are. I will see if I can snap a photo of it and post it. It is not in this good of condition but its not bad.

56H-Y6
11-09-2006, 08:47 AM
Hi
Interesting Car!!!!!!
It is either a '31 Model 90 or a '32 Model 91 President. I don't know the subtle differences to say which.
The State Tourer for seven passengers was offered in 1931, but interesting that body is not the standard Studebaker one. I would like to know who the coachbuilder is.
I defer to the experts for the real details, Mr Quinn?
Steve

56H-Y6
11-09-2006, 08:47 AM
Hi
Interesting Car!!!!!!
It is either a '31 Model 90 or a '32 Model 91 President. I don't know the subtle differences to say which.
The State Tourer for seven passengers was offered in 1931, but interesting that body is not the standard Studebaker one. I would like to know who the coachbuilder is.
I defer to the experts for the real details, Mr Quinn?
Steve

Roscomacaw
11-09-2006, 10:26 AM
Man! THAT'S Classy!

'31s had the oval headlites and no emblem bar between them. '30s had round headlites and DID have a chrome bar between the lights with an "S" emblem in the middle of said bar.

Not an expert am I about prewar Studes, I just referred to James Moloney's fine book, Studebaker Cars.:)

Miscreant adrift in
the BerStuda Triangle!!

1957 Transtar 1/2ton
1960 Larkvertible V8
1958 Provincial wagon
1953 Commander coupe

Roscomacaw
11-09-2006, 10:26 AM
Man! THAT'S Classy!

'31s had the oval headlites and no emblem bar between them. '30s had round headlites and DID have a chrome bar between the lights with an "S" emblem in the middle of said bar.

Not an expert am I about prewar Studes, I just referred to James Moloney's fine book, Studebaker Cars.:)

Miscreant adrift in
the BerStuda Triangle!!

1957 Transtar 1/2ton
1960 Larkvertible V8
1958 Provincial wagon
1953 Commander coupe

lstude
11-09-2006, 11:47 AM
I received this answer from Richard Quinn:


Leonard;

This is a 1932 President with a custom touring body by a European builder. Though Studebaker built a President convertible sedan in 1932 (with roll up windows) they did not build a open touring body like this. This particular car belongs to Karl Mielva who is the owner of a luxury hotel in Norway and who has a number of desirable cars of the 1920's and 30's. His other Studebaker is a 1925 Big six touring car. I have a side view of the car which shows more of thr body. Let me know if interested and I can email you a copy.

Cordially,
Richard Quinn
editor: Antique Studebaker Review
20026 Wolf Rd.
Mokena, Il 60448


Leonard Shepherd, editor, The Commanding Leader, Central Virginia Chapter, http://centralvirginiachapter.org/
http://i99.photobucket.com/albums/l288/lstude/Mein64Daytonasm.jpghttp://i99.photobucket.com/albums/l288/lstude/52inyardsm-1.jpg

lstude
11-09-2006, 11:47 AM
I received this answer from Richard Quinn:


Leonard;

This is a 1932 President with a custom touring body by a European builder. Though Studebaker built a President convertible sedan in 1932 (with roll up windows) they did not build a open touring body like this. This particular car belongs to Karl Mielva who is the owner of a luxury hotel in Norway and who has a number of desirable cars of the 1920's and 30's. His other Studebaker is a 1925 Big six touring car. I have a side view of the car which shows more of thr body. Let me know if interested and I can email you a copy.

Cordially,
Richard Quinn
editor: Antique Studebaker Review
20026 Wolf Rd.
Mokena, Il 60448


Leonard Shepherd, editor, The Commanding Leader, Central Virginia Chapter, http://centralvirginiachapter.org/
http://i99.photobucket.com/albums/l288/lstude/Mein64Daytonasm.jpghttp://i99.photobucket.com/albums/l288/lstude/52inyardsm-1.jpg

arkiejazz
11-09-2006, 01:14 PM
Thanks for that info, Leonard. I assumed it was a custom body, but didn't know if it had been done state-side or in Europe. Most of the classics of that era were custom-bodied

steve blake
http://tinyurl.com/kr3gt
http://tinyurl.com/l7oqh

arkiejazz
11-09-2006, 01:14 PM
Thanks for that info, Leonard. I assumed it was a custom body, but didn't know if it had been done state-side or in Europe. Most of the classics of that era were custom-bodied

steve blake
http://tinyurl.com/kr3gt
http://tinyurl.com/l7oqh

studehunter
11-10-2006, 09:32 AM
Does anyone know what a car like this is worth? I know where one is less than a mile from here. I will take some pictures of it and post them as soon as possible. I wonder if the guy who owns the one here knows what its worth? Thanks for any info.

studehunter
11-10-2006, 09:32 AM
Does anyone know what a car like this is worth? I know where one is less than a mile from here. I will take some pictures of it and post them as soon as possible. I wonder if the guy who owns the one here knows what its worth? Thanks for any info.

lstude
11-10-2006, 01:08 PM
I don't know how much it is worth, but there is a 29 Studebaker phaeton on eBay now that they are asking $120,000.00 Buy It Now.

http://cgi.ebay.com/ebaymotors/1929-STUDEBAKER-dual-cowl-PHAETON-CONVERTIBLE_W0QQitemZ110054142618QQihZ001QQcategoryZ6466QQrdZ1QQcmdZViewItem
http://i99.photobucket.com/albums/l288/lstude/29STUDEBAKERDUALCOWLPHAETON.jpg


Leonard Shepherd, editor, The Commanding Leader, Central Virginia Chapter, http://centralvirginiachapter.org/
http://i99.photobucket.com/albums/l288/lstude/Mein64Daytonasm.jpghttp://i99.photobucket.com/albums/l288/lstude/52inyardsm-1.jpg

lstude
11-10-2006, 01:08 PM
I don't know how much it is worth, but there is a 29 Studebaker phaeton on eBay now that they are asking $120,000.00 Buy It Now.

http://cgi.ebay.com/ebaymotors/1929-STUDEBAKER-dual-cowl-PHAETON-CONVERTIBLE_W0QQitemZ110054142618QQihZ001QQcategoryZ6466QQrdZ1QQcmdZViewItem
http://i99.photobucket.com/albums/l288/lstude/29STUDEBAKERDUALCOWLPHAETON.jpg


Leonard Shepherd, editor, The Commanding Leader, Central Virginia Chapter, http://centralvirginiachapter.org/
http://i99.photobucket.com/albums/l288/lstude/Mein64Daytonasm.jpghttp://i99.photobucket.com/albums/l288/lstude/52inyardsm-1.jpg

studehunter
11-10-2006, 02:14 PM
Here is a photo of a 1932 Phaeton Dictator Eight that is less than one mile from my house. The owner says this is an original car. Any idea what this car is worth?

http://good-times.webshots.com/photo/2445854270096870370WPuipW

studehunter
11-10-2006, 02:14 PM
Here is a photo of a 1932 Phaeton Dictator Eight that is less than one mile from my house. The owner says this is an original car. Any idea what this car is worth?

http://good-times.webshots.com/photo/2445854270096870370WPuipW

lstude
11-10-2006, 02:35 PM
WOW! I asked Richard Quinn for his input on this one. Rare, rare car.

Leonard Shepherd, editor, The Commanding Leader, Central Virginia Chapter, http://centralvirginiachapter.org/
http://i99.photobucket.com/albums/l288/lstude/Mein64Daytonasm.jpghttp://i99.photobucket.com/albums/l288/lstude/52inyardsm-1.jpg

lstude
11-10-2006, 02:35 PM
WOW! I asked Richard Quinn for his input on this one. Rare, rare car.

Leonard Shepherd, editor, The Commanding Leader, Central Virginia Chapter, http://centralvirginiachapter.org/
http://i99.photobucket.com/albums/l288/lstude/Mein64Daytonasm.jpghttp://i99.photobucket.com/albums/l288/lstude/52inyardsm-1.jpg

lstude
11-10-2006, 04:13 PM
This is Richartd Quinn's input on this car:

Leonard;

Thanks for the photo of the '32. The convertible sedans for that year were available on all four chassis, the President, Commander, Dictator and Six (model 55). They were fairly low production vehicles and it is believed that Studebaker had the bodies built by an outside firm perhaps the Auburn-Cord-Duesenberg body builder though this has never been firmly established. In any event they are fairly rare vehicles.

I did a fairly comprehensive article on these cars for the Nov/Dec 2001 issue of The Antique Studebaker Review . Actually the article covered all the Studebaker Convertible Sedan production bodies from 1932-33 and 1938-39 plus some "one offs" made by outside firms in 1934 and '35. I included a number of original factory publicity photos as well photos of current survivors. If you or anyone else is interested I believe there may be some back issues available. Just let me know.

The Dictator and Six were identical in all respects except for the engines with the Dictator being a small 221 c.i. Eight at 85 horsepower and the Six at 230 c.i. and 80 horsepower. Both were built on the same 117" chassis. (Note the Six actually had a higher cubic inch displacememt than the Eight!). Though the outward appearance of the various models were the same the President had a body with larger proportions than both the Commander and Dictator (and Six). There are two known President in the U.S. both unrestored. There are three known Commanders and perhaps six or eight of the two smaller series. I thought I knew of most all of them in the country but I was not aware of the two tone green one shown in the picture you provided. There were two known to have survived that were unaccounted for one having been in the St. Louis, MO area and the other down in Tennessee though I do not have specific information on these two cars. I would be interested in getting the owners name and loction of the two tone green car shown in the image you provided. (I have no interest in buying it, just wish to place it on my roster of survivors.)

As to what that particular car is worth who really knows? Too many unanswered variables. It is worth what a willing buyer will pay a willing seller. Mike Margerum (Elizabethville, PA) sold a retored car identical to this one to Don Armacost (Grandview, MO) a few yeras ago but I am not privy to the sale price. In any event that was a restored car and the green one certainly is not, so there would be no comparison in value. Hezzy Kappus (Altoona, WI) has been trying to sell his model 55 Six for at least 10 years (older restoration) for around $45,000 but has had no takers.

Let me know if you need further information.


Cordially,
Richard Quinn
editor: Antique Studebaker Review
20026 Wolf Rd.
Mokena, Il 60448


Leonard Shepherd, editor, The Commanding Leader, Central Virginia Chapter, http://centralvirginiachapter.org/
http://i99.photobucket.com/albums/l288/lstude/Mein64Daytonasm.jpghttp://i99.photobucket.com/albums/l288/lstude/52inyardsm-1.jpg

lstude
11-10-2006, 04:13 PM
This is Richartd Quinn's input on this car:

Leonard;

Thanks for the photo of the '32. The convertible sedans for that year were available on all four chassis, the President, Commander, Dictator and Six (model 55). They were fairly low production vehicles and it is believed that Studebaker had the bodies built by an outside firm perhaps the Auburn-Cord-Duesenberg body builder though this has never been firmly established. In any event they are fairly rare vehicles.

I did a fairly comprehensive article on these cars for the Nov/Dec 2001 issue of The Antique Studebaker Review . Actually the article covered all the Studebaker Convertible Sedan production bodies from 1932-33 and 1938-39 plus some "one offs" made by outside firms in 1934 and '35. I included a number of original factory publicity photos as well photos of current survivors. If you or anyone else is interested I believe there may be some back issues available. Just let me know.

The Dictator and Six were identical in all respects except for the engines with the Dictator being a small 221 c.i. Eight at 85 horsepower and the Six at 230 c.i. and 80 horsepower. Both were built on the same 117" chassis. (Note the Six actually had a higher cubic inch displacememt than the Eight!). Though the outward appearance of the various models were the same the President had a body with larger proportions than both the Commander and Dictator (and Six). There are two known President in the U.S. both unrestored. There are three known Commanders and perhaps six or eight of the two smaller series. I thought I knew of most all of them in the country but I was not aware of the two tone green one shown in the picture you provided. There were two known to have survived that were unaccounted for one having been in the St. Louis, MO area and the other down in Tennessee though I do not have specific information on these two cars. I would be interested in getting the owners name and loction of the two tone green car shown in the image you provided. (I have no interest in buying it, just wish to place it on my roster of survivors.)

As to what that particular car is worth who really knows? Too many unanswered variables. It is worth what a willing buyer will pay a willing seller. Mike Margerum (Elizabethville, PA) sold a retored car identical to this one to Don Armacost (Grandview, MO) a few yeras ago but I am not privy to the sale price. In any event that was a restored car and the green one certainly is not, so there would be no comparison in value. Hezzy Kappus (Altoona, WI) has been trying to sell his model 55 Six for at least 10 years (older restoration) for around $45,000 but has had no takers.

Let me know if you need further information.


Cordially,
Richard Quinn
editor: Antique Studebaker Review
20026 Wolf Rd.
Mokena, Il 60448


Leonard Shepherd, editor, The Commanding Leader, Central Virginia Chapter, http://centralvirginiachapter.org/
http://i99.photobucket.com/albums/l288/lstude/Mein64Daytonasm.jpghttp://i99.photobucket.com/albums/l288/lstude/52inyardsm-1.jpg

Scott
11-12-2006, 11:23 AM
Here is a beautiful 1935 Phaeton. I've never seen one of these before. Does anyone know who it belongs to? It must be very rare.
http://files.conceptcarz.com/img/Studebaker/35_Studebaker_Model_2A_Dictr_Phtn_DV-06-ARM_02.jpg

Scott
11-12-2006, 11:23 AM
Here is a beautiful 1935 Phaeton. I've never seen one of these before. Does anyone know who it belongs to? It must be very rare.
http://files.conceptcarz.com/img/Studebaker/35_Studebaker_Model_2A_Dictr_Phtn_DV-06-ARM_02.jpg

lstude
11-12-2006, 11:39 AM
quote:
I did a fairly comprehensive article on these cars for the Nov/Dec 2001 issue of The Antique Studebaker Review . Actually the article covered all the Studebaker Convertible Sedan production bodies from 1932-33 and 1938-39 plus some "one offs" made by outside firms in 1934 and '35. I included a number of original factory publicity photos as well photos of current survivors. If you or anyone else is interested I believe there may be some back issues available. Just let me know.

That quote was from Richard Quinn. I don't have that issue of The Antique Studebaker Review, but it may include this car. I'm sure Richard knows who it belongs to. It is truely a beautiful car.

Leonard Shepherd, editor, The Commanding Leader, Central Virginia Chapter, http://centralvirginiachapter.org/
http://i99.photobucket.com/albums/l288/lstude/Mein64Daytonasm.jpghttp://i99.photobucket.com/albums/l288/lstude/52inyardsm-1.jpg

lstude
11-12-2006, 11:39 AM
quote:
I did a fairly comprehensive article on these cars for the Nov/Dec 2001 issue of The Antique Studebaker Review . Actually the article covered all the Studebaker Convertible Sedan production bodies from 1932-33 and 1938-39 plus some "one offs" made by outside firms in 1934 and '35. I included a number of original factory publicity photos as well photos of current survivors. If you or anyone else is interested I believe there may be some back issues available. Just let me know.

That quote was from Richard Quinn. I don't have that issue of The Antique Studebaker Review, but it may include this car. I'm sure Richard knows who it belongs to. It is truely a beautiful car.

Leonard Shepherd, editor, The Commanding Leader, Central Virginia Chapter, http://centralvirginiachapter.org/
http://i99.photobucket.com/albums/l288/lstude/Mein64Daytonasm.jpghttp://i99.photobucket.com/albums/l288/lstude/52inyardsm-1.jpg

arkiejazz
11-12-2006, 05:29 PM
That '35 has Oregon plates. Maybe someone up that way knows the car? What a beauty!

steve blake
http://tinyurl.com/kr3gt
http://tinyurl.com/l7oqh

arkiejazz
11-12-2006, 05:29 PM
That '35 has Oregon plates. Maybe someone up that way knows the car? What a beauty!

steve blake
http://tinyurl.com/kr3gt
http://tinyurl.com/l7oqh

studehunter
11-12-2006, 08:15 PM
The car is in York, SC the owner is James Neinast and he can be reached during the day at 803-684-0000 tell him the Fire Chief told you to call.

studehunter
11-12-2006, 08:15 PM
The car is in York, SC the owner is James Neinast and he can be reached during the day at 803-684-0000 tell him the Fire Chief told you to call.

go-studebaker
11-13-2006, 07:59 AM
Hi Guys,
the new car on the forum is definitely a 'Skippy the Bush Kangaroo' bodied 35 Phaeton.

This was probably made by T.J. Richards in Adelaide, South Australia. It is a typical body used on many cars made in Australia in this period and would have been Right Hand Control originally. I have never seen this type of body used much on Studebakers, but there are plenty of the lesser breeds, Chevs and Fords with this style body on them in Australia. Studebakers were always a less common car in relation to the big 3 so that probably explains why you dont see this body on Studebakers too often in Australia. I have never heard of or seen a body like this on an Australian built Studebaker in 34 or 36 either.


I have seen pictures of a 37 Coupe in outer Melbourne that was made by Richards that really looked like a cut down sedan. ie a 5 window coupe. This car still exists.

T.J Richards later became Holden in about 1940 which ended up part of General Motors.

Enjoy the kooky things that Studebaker did - I certainly do

Regards
Greg




I did hear of another in Queensland about 10 years ago, but never chased the lead up.



Greg Diffen
Australian Stude nut living in Warwick, United Kingdom

1933 St Regis Brougham Model 56 Dutch delivered
1937 Dicator sedan. Australian Body by TJ Richards
1939 Packard Seven Passenger monster UK delivered
1939 Commander Swiss Cabriolet by Lagenthal
1988 Avanti Convertible

go-studebaker
11-13-2006, 07:59 AM
Hi Guys,
the new car on the forum is definitely a 'Skippy the Bush Kangaroo' bodied 35 Phaeton.

This was probably made by T.J. Richards in Adelaide, South Australia. It is a typical body used on many cars made in Australia in this period and would have been Right Hand Control originally. I have never seen this type of body used much on Studebakers, but there are plenty of the lesser breeds, Chevs and Fords with this style body on them in Australia. Studebakers were always a less common car in relation to the big 3 so that probably explains why you dont see this body on Studebakers too often in Australia. I have never heard of or seen a body like this on an Australian built Studebaker in 34 or 36 either.


I have seen pictures of a 37 Coupe in outer Melbourne that was made by Richards that really looked like a cut down sedan. ie a 5 window coupe. This car still exists.

T.J Richards later became Holden in about 1940 which ended up part of General Motors.

Enjoy the kooky things that Studebaker did - I certainly do

Regards
Greg




I did hear of another in Queensland about 10 years ago, but never chased the lead up.



Greg Diffen
Australian Stude nut living in Warwick, United Kingdom

1933 St Regis Brougham Model 56 Dutch delivered
1937 Dicator sedan. Australian Body by TJ Richards
1939 Packard Seven Passenger monster UK delivered
1939 Commander Swiss Cabriolet by Lagenthal
1988 Avanti Convertible

Studebaker Wheel
11-13-2006, 01:40 PM
The 1935 Dictator Touring (Phaeton) was featured on the cover of Turning Wheelsin July 1986. A brief article was provided by the then California owner Les Allen of San Jose. A more comprehensive feature was done on it in the February 1987 issue of Special Interest Autos. After Allen sold it the car went through a few owners until its most recent sale on May 6, 2006 at an R&M auction in NOVI, Michigan. The sale price was $39,590 plus the buyers premium. The current owner is Doug Foeller who resides in Florida. I believe he intends to place it on the block at his auction next March (2007).

The comments re the Australian (Richards) body are correct. It was sent downunder in 1934 as a right hand drive chassis and the body was built there. After 37 years of hard usage it was purchased sight unseen by two Californians in 1971 for $1000. The car was shipped to San Francisco ($399.48) and later resold with only a partial restoration completed. The aforementioned Les Allen had it completed and converted to LHD.

It should be mentioned that Studebaker did not offer an open touring body in 1934 or 1935 and neither did they offer a convertible sedan, though one of each has survived. The convertible sedan is a President Eight and it has a Canadian built aluminum body. It was restored by the Shrock Brothers of Pennsylvania for the late Bob Yale of North Wilkesboro, North Carolina. The car was shown at the SDC Intl meet in Rapid City. It is still in the Yale family.

R. Quinn

Studebaker Wheel
11-13-2006, 01:40 PM
The 1935 Dictator Touring (Phaeton) was featured on the cover of Turning Wheelsin July 1986. A brief article was provided by the then California owner Les Allen of San Jose. A more comprehensive feature was done on it in the February 1987 issue of Special Interest Autos. After Allen sold it the car went through a few owners until its most recent sale on May 6, 2006 at an R&M auction in NOVI, Michigan. The sale price was $39,590 plus the buyers premium. The current owner is Doug Foeller who resides in Florida. I believe he intends to place it on the block at his auction next March (2007).

The comments re the Australian (Richards) body are correct. It was sent downunder in 1934 as a right hand drive chassis and the body was built there. After 37 years of hard usage it was purchased sight unseen by two Californians in 1971 for $1000. The car was shipped to San Francisco ($399.48) and later resold with only a partial restoration completed. The aforementioned Les Allen had it completed and converted to LHD.

It should be mentioned that Studebaker did not offer an open touring body in 1934 or 1935 and neither did they offer a convertible sedan, though one of each has survived. The convertible sedan is a President Eight and it has a Canadian built aluminum body. It was restored by the Shrock Brothers of Pennsylvania for the late Bob Yale of North Wilkesboro, North Carolina. The car was shown at the SDC Intl meet in Rapid City. It is still in the Yale family.

R. Quinn

Scott
11-13-2006, 02:33 PM
That's an impressive store of information on the 1935. It's hard to believe it went for as little as about $40,000. I would almost consider that a steal for that car. I was guessing it to be worth in the 90K to 110K area. I mean 1957 Chevy convertibles go for $100K now. This is 10 times the car.

Scott
11-13-2006, 02:33 PM
That's an impressive store of information on the 1935. It's hard to believe it went for as little as about $40,000. I would almost consider that a steal for that car. I was guessing it to be worth in the 90K to 110K area. I mean 1957 Chevy convertibles go for $100K now. This is 10 times the car.